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Green Pins – Halcyon Tidal Power Projects under active development
Yellow Pins – Halcyon Tidal Power Projects of near-term interest
Purple Pins – Tidal Range Power Plants in current operation
Red Pins – Areas of interest – Areas that have been studied and assessed by various organisations or governments. Most of these locations are sites for projects which were planned but not built due to cost or environmental concerns. Halcyon innovations resolve these two concerns, making many of these sites feasible.
A GLOBAL RESOURCE
Tidal range power is a global resource, viable on five continents. The map shows a representative sample of projects worldwide, but it is by no means comprehensive. The most complete list of tidal power plants in operation, under design, studied or proposed is found in L.B. Bernshtein Tidal Power Plants (L.B. Bernshtein, Ed., Tidal Power Plants, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1996, Appendix). The combined total capacity of this list of facilities is estimated to be 821 GW with an estimated annual output of 2,037 TWh. This represents about 10% of 2010 global electricity generation of 21,500 TWh.
Projects listed in Bernshtein (1996) are tidal range designs — none are tidal stream (hydrokinetic) deployments. Almost all these tidal range designs are of the barrage variety, requiring highly indented shorelines or the mouths of large river estuaries. Since Halcyon Tidal Power Project Lagoons can be built along any shoreline with sufficiently high tidal regimes, Halcyon technology may double the tidal resource estimated by Bernshtein to 20% of the world’s electricity consumption.
OVERCOMING REMOTENESS – HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION
Some of the projects and regions considered are in remote locations. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines can overcome these limitations in large part due to much lower line losses than High Voltage Alternating Current lines. Currently the longest HVDC link is the 6,400 MW, 2,071 km Xiagjiaba to Shanghai line in China. The longest undersea HVDC cable is the 580 km NorNed line between Norway and the Netherlands.
OVERCOMING INTERMITTANCY – LINKAGE WITH RIVER HYDRO AND OTHER TIDAL RANGE FACILITIES
Almost all renewable energy resources are subject to intermittency — the inability to operate continuously due to the lack of wind, sun or constant tidal activity. Because the lack of wind and sun are relatively unpredictable events, electrical storage is likely the only means of meeting peak periods of electrical demand. On the other hand, tidal activity can be determined with scientific accuracy to the point where gas-fired peaking facilities or hydroelectric facilities can be integrated with tidal power production to produce baseload power! A tidal range power plant can also be operated synergistically with another tidal power plant, reducing or eliminating intermittency. For example, in India, the high tides in the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Khambhat occur about 3 hours apart. Linked Halcyon TPPs located in each bay could provide firm, continuous power output. The potential for linked projects exists in Australia, India, Argentina and the UK.
HVDC, linked tidal power plants, and operation with river hydro will transform tidal power into a massive global source of firm baseload power.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS REAL, TIDAL POWER IS READY
Climate change is threatening the very existence of life on Earth, and every year temperature records are broken, superstorms and tornados cripple whole cities, and entire species are wiped out due to habitat loss. Acidification by CO2 absorption is turning the oceans into lifeless voids. We need to act fast, and we need to think big.
Tidal range power is an energy resource available on a massive scale for global reduction in carbon emissions; and with Halcyon’s low cost construction methodology and environmentally pro-active design, this resource can be realized at its full potential.